A Standard Instrument Departure Route (SID) is a standard route for the pilot to fly. It is based on several parameters (destination, weight of the aircraft, runway-in-use, etc.) to bring the aircraft from take-off phase to the international network of airways across Europe.
A Standard Arrival Route (STAR) is a standard route which brings the aircraft from the international network of airways across Europe to a point close to the destination airport from which an (instrument) approach procedure can be started for landing.
SIDs and STARs are designed to de-conflict potentially conflicting traffic. There are several SIDs and STARs defined for each runway. The design of SIDs and STARs is submitted to international and national criteria.
The SIDs and STARs are established by the Federal authorities and published in the Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP).
SIDs and STARs are established by the Federal authorities and published in the Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP).
Aircraft are bound to published routes and dedicated flying areas. However, ATC and pilots may deviate from routes for safety reasons or in order to expedite traffic flow.
Furthermore, an aircraft is very much dependent on wind and other atmospheric conditions. Therefore it is of great importance to realize that an aircraft cannot always fly a designed flight path as a train that follows its tracks.
There are two main different techniques of navigation, i.e. conventional navigation and performance based navigation. The latter provides the most accurate route flown.
When using conventional navigation, the aircraft/pilot uses ground based navigational aids (radio beacons) to determine its position.
When using performance based navigation, the aircraft/pilot uses the onboard flight management system(s) where a combination of different navigation tools work together to determine the aircraft’s position, e.g satellite navigation, available radio beacons, triangulation thereof, and an inertial navigation system. This combination is thanks to the latest technology more accurate and more flexible in use compared to the sole use of ground based radio beacons.
A missed approach or go-around is a procedure whereby the pilot cancels the approach for landing and decides either to make a next attempt or to divert to another aerodrome. Reasons for a missed approach or go-around are various and can be initiated by the pilot as well as by ATC.